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FOOTSTEPS  OF THE CONQUEST

1

Mehmed II became the Ottoman Sultan in 1451. Many people thought that he would not be a good ruler. Especially the Christians in Europe and İstanbul believed that he was not dangerous for them. Bayezid I, Fatih’s grandfather, had built a fortress on the Asian side of the Bosphorus*. This fortress was called Anadolu Hisarı. This fortress controlled the Bosphorus. Fatih built a second fortress. This one was on the European side and it was called Rumeli Hisarı. We had greater control over the Bosphorus with this new fortress. At that time there were Genoese colonies along theBlack Sea coast. They often helped the Romans in İstanbul. Fatih wanted to prevent this help. This is why he built Rumeli Hisarı. These two fortresses provided the Ottomans with complete control over the Bosphorus**.

Constantine XI, the Roman Emperor, understood that Fatih was making plans against him. He knew that Fatih wanted to conquer İstanbul. So, he asked Western Europeans to help him. However, the Western Europeans and the Romans didn’t like each other very much. That was because the Romans were Orthodox and the Western Europeans were Catholic. Because the Ottoman danger was imminent, they made some attempts for unification. But the Christians of İstanbul really hated the Europeans and they said that they would rather see the Turkish turban in İstanbul than the red hat of a catholic cardinal***. This hatred was because the Europeans had invaded İstanbul in 1204 while they were on the way to Palestine for a crusade. As a result, unification attempts were futile.

In the summer of 1452, Fatih completed Rumeli Hisarı. Constantine XI understood that Fatih was serious and dangerous. So, he wrote a letter to the Pope. He asked for help. He said that he and his people would obey the Pope’s rules and conditions. The pope finally agreed to help. Constantine was very happy because he thought that the Pope was very influential over European kings. He believed that all of these kings would help him now and protect the last city of the Roman Empire. However, Constantine didn’t know one thing: the Pope did not have much influence over these kings. In fact, they didn’t like the Pope much. So, when the Pope asked them to help their Christian brothers in İstanbul, only a few princes listened. The only serious support was Giovanni Giustiniani from Genoa with his 700 men. He was a good soldier and a specialist in defense. However, the Ottoman strength was far superior to his.



*Bayezid had built Anadolu Hisarı. Fatih’in yaptıklarından bahsederken birden Bayezid zamanına yani çok daha öncesine dönüyoruz ve onun yaptığı birşeyi hatırlatıyoruz. Eğer anlatıma past simple kullanarak devam etsek ve “Bayezid built Anadolu Hisarı” desek Bayezid bu hisarı Fatih’in tahta geçmesinden sonra yapmış gibi bir yanlış anlama olacak. Bu durumda, bahsettiğimizden daha önceki bir zamana geçiş yeptığımızı belirtmemiz gerekiyor. Işte bunu past perfect kullanarak yani “Bayezid had built Anadolu Hisarı” diyerek yapıyoruz. Anadolu Hisarının Fatih’in tahta geçmesinde daha önce yapıldığını böylece anlatmış oluyoruz.

**These two fortresses provided the Ottomans with complete control =These two fortresses provided complete control for the Ottomans. Her iki kullanım da doğrudur.

***They would rather see the Turkish turban in İstanbul than catholic hat =They preferred Turkish turban to Catholic hat =They liked Turkish turban better than Catholic hat =They hated Catholic hat more than Turkish turban. (“İstanbul’da Katolik külahı görmektense Osmanlı sarığı görmeği tercih ederiz” demişler.)


SORULAR

1)     Were Europeans and Romans afraid of Fatih when he became the Sultan?

2)     Why did Fatih build a second fortress along the Bosphorus?

3)     Why did Constantine ask for European help?

4)     Why did the Romans of İstanbul hate the Catholics?

5)     Catholics and Orthodox Christians didn’t like each other. Nevertheless they made some attempts for unification. Why?

6)     What did Constantine expect European kings to do?

7)     Why didn’t the kings of Europe listen to the Pope?


CEVAPLAR

ZAMİR SORULARI

Altı çizili zamirler tam olarak hangi ifadelerin yerini tutmaktadır?

1-    them, line 3:

2-    one, line 5:

3-    this, line 9:

4-    him, line 13:

5-    that, line 14:

6-    they, line 15:

7-    they, line 19:

8-   him, line 26:

9-    they, line 28:


CEVAPLAR




Turkey is surrounded by the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and the Agean Sea
Crusades are Christian military attempts to recapture Jerusalem (Kudüs) from Muslims.
the Pope
We must obey traffic rules!
prevent (v) = stop (önlemek)
provide (v)= sağlamak, vermek, sunmak
complete (adj)= full (tam)
complete (v)= finish
imminent (adj) =If a danger is imminent, it can happen any time soon. (yakında olabilecek)
attempt (n) = girişim, teşebbüs
unification (n) =birleşme
hatred (n) =nefret
futile (adj)= useless, meaningless (boş, sonuçsuz)
condition (n)= şart
agree (v)= If you agree to do something, you say OK (kabul etmek, anlaşmak)
influential (adj)= If a man is influential, other people respect him and they listen to him.
(etkili, nüfuz sahibi)
support (n) =destek
superior (adj) = stronger, better (üstün)
Sorular / Yorumlar
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